Non-nuclear weapon state members of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) have the option to remove nuclear materials from international control for use in non-weapon military activities, for example nuclear propulsion of submarines. This option, sometimes referred as the NPT loophole, limits the power of the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify that nuclear materials are not diverted to pursue the development of nuclear weapons.
In this project, we developed the first comprehensive model for the application of safeguards on the naval nuclear fuel cycle in a military environment.
S. Philippe, Safeguarding the Military Naval Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Journal of Nuclear Materials Management, Vol. XLII, No.3, 2014, pp 40-52.